## golden ratio

a geometric proportion that has been theorized to be the most aesthetically pleasing to the eye (also known as golden section, golden mean, golden number, divine proportion, and phi)

a geometric proportion that has been theorized to be the most aesthetically pleasing to the eye (also known as golden section, golden mean, golden number, divine proportion, and phi)

the “perfect” rectangle that uses the golden ratio; it is created using these steps:

- draw a perfect square and divide it in half
- draw a diagonal line that connects opposite corners of one half
- rotate the diagonal until it aligns with the side of the square
- extend the square to the end of the flattened diagonal

points are generated by drawing diagonals to the corners and putting focus on the halfway point to the center - this is sometimes referred to as the "eyes of the rectangle"

circular arcs are drawn connecting the opposite corners of intersections created by golden rectangles

this rectangle can be infinitely subdivided into the same proportion; it is created using these steps:

- draw a perfect square
- draw a diagonal line that connects opposite corners
- rotate the diagonal until it aligns with the side of the square
- extend the square to the end of the flattened diagonal

this rectangle is simply made of two perfect squares:

- draw a perfect square
- duplicate the square
- unite the two squares

a series of numbers in which each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers

circular arcs are drawn connecting the opposite corners of squares whose lengths are a sequence of fibonacci numbers

dividing a composition into thirds (nine equal parts) and aligning important compositional elements to the imaginary lines or their intersections

Grids are used as guidelines for aligning elements. A page grid usually consists of the following:

a distance from the edges (negative space) that defines the live area

individual intervals of space, typically within the margins

the space between the modules

vertical module groups that create horizontal divisions

horizontal module groups that create vertical divisions

horizontal lines created across the space between the margins

groups of adjacent modules that define a section

a placement indicator for repeating elements, such as page numbers, running heads or footers

Below is an introduction to different grid types. Grids can be simple or made very complex using a variety of shapes and sizes. Grids can also explore different angles as well as 3-dimensional space.

the simplest grid; elements run across the page to the margins - also called a manuscript grid

dividing a page into equal or unequal columns

dividing a page horizontally and vertically into equally defined spaces

this is a custom grid used to intuitively place elements based on their position and dominance

an elliptical division of the page - often used in conjunction with horizontal and/or vertical modules

dividing a page using triangles

above is another example of how a book's text block might be designed using divisions of the page to create a grid system